UK Alum Creates Scholarship Foundation for Black Students with GPA of 2.0 or Better

By Akhira Umar, University of Kentucky

As a journalism student at Sullivan Foundation partner school University of Kentucky, Aaron Porter struggled to make ends meet. Now that his career is thriving, he and his cousins have started a scholarship foundation to ease that burden for a new generation of underprivileged Black scholars.

In the first months of 2020, Porter and his cousins, Darrell Williams and Andrew Porter, began researching and planning how to create a scholarship fund. By Dec. 1, they launched the Lawson Porter Scholarship Foundation, named after their grandfather, who instilled generosity within the family.

Related: Elon University social entrepreneurs help Black-owned businesses find new customers

The nationwide scholarship is aimed at helping Black academics like themselves afford higher education, wherever that may be. Unlike many other scholarships that are merit-based and designated for certain majors, this scholarship is open for students of all fields of study with a GPA of at least 2.0.

Porter noted that financial availability is an issue for many Black households, so this scholarship is widening the accessibility of financial aid.

Aaron Porter wants to grow the Lawson Porter Scholarship Foundation to provide a support network for Black students who face the challenges that confronted him in his own college days.

“Being someone who had limited resources, being someone who had to take student loans, being someone who has debt as we speak, we really wanted to focus in on how we can create an avenue for Black students in all aspects of college and learning,” Porter said. “Kind of give them an opportunity to not have to worry about ‘can I pay for this?’ or ‘can I pay for that?’ or ‘can I do this?’ or ‘can I do that?’ They can just go and be students.”

Porter came to campus as a quiet, out-of-state kid who hardly knew anyone and didn’t know what to major in. From semester to semester, he was always left wondering if he’d be able to continue at UK. In fact, without an unexpected grant one year, he was sure he would have to return home to attend community college in Indianapolis.

Despite these obstacles, Porter grew to become a leader on UK’s campus. He became a resident advisor, a singer in the UK Black Voices Gospel Choir and president and vice president of UK’s chapter of the National Association of Black Journalists. In 2019, he also won the NAACP UK Chapter Citizen of the Year Award for his work with the Black Student Advisory Council.

Porter is now a public affairs assistant for the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resources Conservation Service for the state of Mississippi. Despite taking up this new job and its added responsibilities, he knew it was still important to keep giving back.

Related: This Black-owned food delivery company helps make Black-owned restaurants more competitive

“Aaron is one of the best humans I know. His passion for social and racial justice, his love for his community and his unwavering faith are front and center with him always,” said Carol Taylor-Shim, director of UK’s Office of Equity, Inclusion and Social Justice and one of Porter’s mentors at the university. “Aaron always honors and protects the humanity of others; it is the center of who he is. What a gift he gave us by choosing UK, and we are far better for it.”

The Lawson Porter Scholarship Foundation’s Facebook page focuses on important figures from Black history, such as Alexander Twilight, the first African-American to graduate from college.

The dedication Porter has for supporting his fellow Black peers is something he shares and regularly discusses with his cousins. Black awareness and appreciation determined who the recipients of their scholarship would be, along with every other aspect of the foundation. Everything on the foundation’s website, from the logo to the color palate, is “Black-inspired, Black-imagined, Black-created,” Porter said.

The application process also requires applicants to create a submission piece that “captures some form of Afrocentric history” in order to combat the lack of Black history that is taught in education systems.

“What is most impressive about Aaron is that self-recognition was never at the heart of his work. He was always concerned about paths of opportunity he was creating for other students, particularly students of color who are marginalized in predominantly white institutions,” said Mel Coffee, a former School of Journalism and Media faculty member and current director of the Capital News Service Broadcast Bureau at the University of Maryland’s Philip Merrill College of Journalism. “Aaron had a fluid relationship with students and administrators that allowed him to create positive dialogue and change. He’s the student I loved having in class, a colleague I admire in his post-student status, and a man I am proud to also call my friend.”

Although the scholarship foundation is still in its infancy, Porter said they have already received donations from across the nation, including friends, family members and complete strangers. While he’s putting his journalism experience to use as the scholarship foundation’s social media content manager, he looks forward to the day when he’ll be able to disperse scholarship funds as the foundation’s treasurer. He hopes his work will allow him to help others just as his support system had done for him.

“You may never know my name, you may never know who I am, and I’m okay with that,” Porter said. “But if deep down I know that I made an impact on society somewhere, I think that really drives me, and that’s what drives all three of us to do the work that we have committed to doing with the scholarship foundation. I’ll take pleasure in that seven days a week and twice on Sunday.”

For more information about donating to or applying for the Lawson Porter Scholarship Foundation, visit

This article has been edited from the original version appearing on the University of Kentucky website.

North Carolina Wesleyan College Joins the Battle Against Human Trafficking

North Carolina Wesleyan College, a Sullivan Foundation partner school, has partnered with JOY International and its mission to rescue, restore and reintegrate children, teens and women affected by human trafficking around the world.

The College will host its first NC Wesleyan Barefoot Mile fundraiser on Saturday, April 10, where faculty, staff and students will walk to raise awareness of the effects of human trafficking.

JOY International is a nonprofit organization based in Conifer, Colorado, that has helped over 2,000 children, teens and women. JOY works closely with law enforcement to find, prosecute and prevent sex traffickers around the world. After a rescue, those affected are placed in carefully selected and equipped homes to help promote healing and a positive future.

Related: North Carolina Wesleyan’s Afterschool Tutoring Initiative is a big win for education majors and local school children

Human trafficking is the fastest-growing and second-largest crime internationally. Globally, two million children are targeted and exploited each year in this $150 billion-dollar industry.

While human trafficking is a worldwide issue, it occurs locally as well. The U.S. Department of State estimates that 14,500- 17,500 children, teens and women are trafficked into the U.S. each year.

The NC Wesleyan Barefoot Mile will be hosted by Refuge Campus Ministries in partnership with JOY International, BraceChange and PATCH, Inc.

North Carolina Wesleyan College hopes to be a catalyst in the fight against human trafficking by raising $15,000. Various levels of sponsorship are available for any business or individual wanting to help contribute to this goal. Your contribution can help at least one person escape from the bondage of human trafficking. For more details and to register, visit

Due to COVID-19 precautions, the on-campus event is limited solely to NC Wesleyan students, faculty and staff; however, community members can sign up to walk virtually between April 4 and April 10.

To help promote the event, two self-defense classes for women will be held on Friday, April 9, at Rise Church in Rocky Mount, N.C. Community members can participate from 5:15–7:15 p.m., and Wesleyan students can join from 7:30–9:30 p.m. Event organizers are also hosting a virtual silent auction for businesses to donate items if they’re unable to partner financially.

“The call from those with no voice needs to be answered, and JOY is doing just that. I hope you will join me and these other ministries and organizations to fight for those being trafficked and exploited,” said Natalie Larson, an NC Wesleyan student and the event’s organizer. “I pray our goal will be met, and, through this initiative, God will receive all the glory!”

This story has been edited slightly from the original version appearing on the North Carolina Wesleyan College website.

George Mason Graduate Student Advocates for Those With ‘Invisible Disabilities’

By Colleen Kearney Rich

In March 2020, just as the pandemic was beginning, Christine M. Condo, a graduate student at Sullivan Foundation partner school George Mason University, published an essay in the Washington Post that changed her life.

Thousands of people reacted to the piece titled, “‘You don’t look autistic’: The reality of high-functioning autism.” Some of those comments were from people saying, “You just described my life,” which was something Condo had aimed for as an autism advocate. But it still surprised her.

“It was really the first time in my life that the person I am underneath all this was actually seen,” said Condo, who is pursuing a master’s degree in English with a concentration in professional and technical writing. “I still get emotional talking about it because it was so incredible.”

Related: Fast-growing restaurant chain commits to hiring more employees with autism and differing abilities

She said that not only is autism misunderstood, it’s largely underdiagnosed, especially in women, people of color and in other cultures. Many have a stereotypical view of what someone with autism looks like—often a white male. It was partly this stereotype that drove Condo to write the essay.

“I was getting tired of the comments, ‘You don’t look autistic,’ because I felt like it really minimized the experiences that I’ve had my whole life and the amount of work that goes into that disguise and how psychologically painful it can be to have to hide who you really are,” she said. “I decided somebody needs to say something because this is happening everywhere, and people don’t realize it.”

It turns out Condo was that somebody. When she talks about the “disguise,” she is speaking about the challenges of appearing “neurotypical,” which can be physically and emotionally exhausting.

“So many of us are faking it,” she said.

Condo wasn’t diagnosed until 2015. She made it through public school systems and two bachelor’s degrees in writing-related subjects, one at James Madison University and the other at University of Maryland, without anyone realizing that there was something wrong with the way she processed information. She suspected it, though.

“I started becoming aware that my information processing was very, very different from that of my classmates,” she said.

As an undergraduate, Condo, who describes herself as hyperlexic, struggled with trying to prioritize what information was important when studying. So she attempted to master everything. A full course load was a challenge for her.

“It’s been a journey,” she said of finally getting a diagnosis. “And the more I learn [about autism], the more I think about my struggles growing up, when I thought I wasn’t trying hard enough or I wasn’t paying enough attention.”

Condo has made it her mission to change the dialogue about autism. In fact, her research and her thesis are devoted to this topic.

Related: George Mason University senior works with children impacted by cancer

“My focus has been on how language helps create the world we live in,” she said. “People with autism in this country have been defined by stereotypes for the last 30-plus years. If we can change the way people talk about autism, we can change the way people think about autism.”

She also writes and talks about what she calls the “Autism Paradox.”

“We can simply just stop hiding our autism, but then we won’t be employable,” she said. “Or you can do what I do, which is hide your autism. And then people are like, ‘Well, you’re not really autistic. You don’t need any accommodations.’”

Her concerns extend beyond autism to what she calls “invisible disabilities,” which she believes is probably one of the next hurdles for the United States.

“There’s been a lot of progress on getting accommodations for physical disabilities,” she said, “but there’s this huge cohort of people like me with invisible disabilities or whose disabilities aren’t apparent, such as low vision or hard of hearing. There’s no place for us in the disability laws.”

She added, “We still live in a culture where the onus is on the person with the disability to make sure that able people are comfortable around them.”

Still, Condo considers herself lucky. She has a partner and a family who support her and her advocacy work, including her sister, Andrea Kendall, who is a licensed clinical social worker “who gets it” and has become the “go-to therapist for teens and young women with autism.”

Condo and her sister are working on sharing her research at future conferences. That’s one of her goals for the year. Another goal was to publish two more articles, which she did. One of those was published in February in The Washington Post: “I’m autistic. I’m hoping I can wear a mask for the rest of my life.”

Related: George Mason University alumnus recognized as racial justice leader

Mason’s Department of English and Condo’s other professors also appear to get it. Not only have they been able to address Condo’s requests for accommodations, she has worked as a graduate teaching assistant for a multidisciplinary course taught by English professor Heidi Lawrence and as an intern in the department.

“Working with Christine is a delight—she always adds insightful dimensions to class discussion, is an incredibly talented professional writer, and has built a career in professional writing that is inspiring to her classmates,” Lawrence said. “It has been so inspiring to see the advocacy work she has taken on in addition to her always-exemplary class and program work. We are lucky that Christine is in our program!”

This story has been edited slightly from the original version appearing on the George Mason University website.

Elon University Social Entrepreneurs Help Black-Owned Businesses Find New Customers

By Patrick Wright, Elon University

Go to college. Graduate. Find your dream job. That’s how things are supposed to work, right? But what if you reached what you thought was your goal and turned it down with no alternative in sight? Now, that takes boldness.

Doug Spencer Jr., a 2016 graduate of Sullivan Foundation partner school Elon University and a former Elon Youth Trustee from Washington, D.C., had already enrolled in his dream law school when a summer job at a law firm changed his mind.

“It didn’t fit—it didn’t feel right to me,” Spencer said. “I called [the law school] and told them, ‘Thank you, but I’m not coming.’”

Related: This Black-owned food delivery company helps make Black-owned restaurants more competitive

“I definitely wasn’t skipping through a field of daisies either,” added Danielle Deavens, a 2016 Elon graduate who majored in print and online journalism. She’d landed a job at Food Network Magazine after graduation and realized her dreams were somewhere else.

The search for a dream isn’t the only thing connecting Deavens and Spencer. They’ve dated since they met as first-year students at an Elon soccer game in 2012. Eight and half years later, they’re taking on a bold new business venture together—one meant to support and celebrate Black-owned businesses.

“You usually don’t work with the person that you spend the rest of your life with, and so being able to do both is at times hard, but it’s mostly the best job ever,” Deavens said.

Products from Black-owned businesses are prepared for shipping at Bold Xchange.

Together, the couple launched Bold Xchange, an online retail shop that markets products exclusively sourced from Black-owned businesses, in February 2020. Bold Xchange offers a convenient way to find Black-owned businesses across the country and promises fast shipping, no hidden fees, vetted products and thoughtfully crafted rewards.

Deavens and Spencer research and acquire products from brand partners, market them and handle fulfillment of every order themselves. It’s no simple task, but the opportunity to help good businesses break down barriers far outweighs the work required, the couple said.

“You’re reminded every day about how meaningful this is because you’re working with people who are also nourishing their baby,” Spencer said. “Their business is something they’ve put so much time into.”

Bold Xchange’s work with Black-owned businesses has already earned the company national attention. Since the online shop’s official launch in 2020, Bold Xchange has been featured by and partnered with Home Depot to curate a Black History Month box, containing Black-owned products, to be shipped to customers and influencers.

Related: This Algernon Sydney Sullivan Award recipient beat breast cancer and helps other Black women do the same

Deavens and Spencer also recently received a $50,000, equity-free Arch Grant to relocate Bold Xchange to St. Louis, Missouri, and use warehouse space there to grow their business further.

The most meaningful aspect of their first year of business, however, has been the opportunity to help Black-owned businesses thrive, even amid a global pandemic. “It’s so rewarding to talk to brand partners who say, ‘I had a banner year, and I couldn’t have done it without you guys,’” said Deavens. “That’s the dream—that you help somebody have a really great year.”

Bold Xchange was born out of a series of seemingly unrelated events. When Spencer passed on law school, he published a post about the difficult decision for a friend’s blog. His story garnered a great deal of attention and encouraged others to reach out to him for advice in making their own bold moves. That interest inspired Deavens and Spencer to start a blog of their own, “The Curatours,” which focused on young Black people doing notable work.

this is a photo of Danielle Deavens, co-founder of Bold Xchange and a social entrepreneur who helps black-owned businesses

Danielle Deavens

Around that time, Deavens was checking off presents from her Christmas list when a friend told her about a Black-owned formal-wear company that would be a great place to buy a pocket square for her father. Deavens enjoyed the shopping experience so much that she decided to buy all of her family’s presents that year from Black-owned businesses, but she was surprised by how difficult it was to find businesses to support.

Soon after, Deavens and Spencer launched Bold Xchange, combining their passion for sharing stories of Black excellence with their goal of supporting Black business owners.

“It was kind of born out of knowing these great Black-owned businesses existed, knowing it was a personal connection that led me to them, and wanting it to be a more accessible and simple experience,” Deavens said. “It all kind of started there.”

Related: Elon University student’s clothing brand combines positive message with entrepreneurship

The summer of 2020 gave the couple’s work new meaning, as cries for social justice rang out across the nation. In the weeks following the police killings of George Floyd and Breonna Taylor—and the nationwide protests that followed—Bold Xchange saw a spike in visitors looking for ways to support Black-owned businesses. With the increased interest, the shop frequently ran out of inventory, and Deavens and Spencer even struggled to keep a supply of shipping boxes in stock.

But the success of their business wasn’t front of mind at that moment. Their focus was on making a statement. “We want to be a part of convincing people that this is something they should care about forever,” Spencer said. “So for both of us, it’s like, yes, we’re supporting these entrepreneurs, but how do we engage with people who are now paying attention and help them understand that this isn’t a fad, it isn’t fleeting?”

Doug Spencer co-founded Bold Xchange to create new opportunities for black-owned companies

Doug Spencer

Deavens and Spencer are continuing on with that message in mind, as they form strong personal connections with the Black business owners who help make Bold Xchange a success. They’ve spent time learning about their stories, their concerns and their dreams, and the couple hopes to see brand partners reach their personal and business goals through Bold Xchange.

“I think there are these headlines around what supporting Black entrepreneurship means, and those are really important, but we’ve gotten to see the human element behind that and the actual impact that we can make in real people’s lives,” Deavens said.

Just like the brand partners they support, Deavens and Spencer have learned that stepping out on faith isn’t always easy. And it doesn’t always work the first time—just ask them about the 2018 beta version of Bold Xchange. Two years later, however, they’re running a successful business together and looking to expand their operation. And all it took was a little boldness—boldness that doesn’t stop here.

“If we’ve done this in one year, where will we be in five? Where will we be in 10?” Deavens said. “We have really lofty goals for Bold Xchange, so to be able to start to see even some of those come true is incredible.”

This story has been edited slightly from the original version appearing on the Elon University website.

This Black-Owned Food Delivery Company Helps Make Black-Owned Restaurants More Competitive

Just one day after Donald Trump was elected president in 2016, twin brothers David and Aaron Cabello, sophomores at Shippensburg University at the time, decided to drop out of school and start a business that would support Black-owned companies in their native Philadelphia. That business turned out to be Black and Mobile, a food delivery platform exclusively for Black-owned restaurants.

“We wanted to help Black people and Black businesses,” David Cabello told Fortune in a recent article. “We didn’t know how we were going to do it, of course. We were 21 years old and broke. We just knew we wanted to help.”

Related: This Algernon Sydney Sullivan Award recipient beat breast cancer and helps other Black women do the same

As the brothers worked on their plans, they took on food delivery jobs with third-party platforms like Postmates, Uber Eats and Caviar. When the latter company hired David but not Aaron, the twins worked out a novel solution so both of them could learn the business. “We just used the same account,” David said in the Fortune interview. “I would do a five-hour shift, take a break, charge my electric bike, and then Aaron would go out there for five hours. We were doing 10-, 11-hour days. I’m sure they probably thought, ‘How is he delivering for that long?’”

In one marathon session, the Cabello brothers earned $1,100 in 30 hours. “I was, like, if I can make this much money delivering food on a bicycle, how much can I make if I owned a company?” David recalled.

this photo shows David and Aaron Cabello, founders of Black and Mobile, a third-party food delivery company that supports black-owned restaurants

David and Aaron Cabello

As of February 2019, Black and Mobile was in business and on the road, delivering food from Black-owned restaurants to customers all around Philadelphia. Their goal was to provide needed exposure for under-represented businesses in urban communities and help them become more competitive.

“It was slow going at first,” David recalled in an article posted on the Onfleet website. “I got hit by a car. We grossed $25,000 the first year. I didn’t know what I was doing. I kept getting stuck on the complex logistics of delivery.”

Onfleet’s technology helped the brothers better solve their logistics problems. Ironically, the pandemic of 2020 helped accelerate Black and Mobile’s growth. “Everybody wanted delivery,” he said. “In April, we tripled our volume.”

The Black Lives Matter movement also sparked interest in his company. “We advertised mostly organically on Instagram. That blew up.”

According to the Fortune article, the larger food delivery platforms might deprioritize or even refuse to deliver in some neighborhoods. Their high fees and technology requirements also pose a challenge to undercapitalized Black-owned restaurants. Many third-party delivery companies gobble up to 30 percent of a restaurant’s order with fees and commissions.

Related: President Biden’s executive order will provide more federal aid for anti-hunger nonprofits

“You would think big national businesses would have good customer service and not have such high sign-up costs and commission fees,” Shon Emanuel, the owner of Supreme Oasis, a Black and Mobile restaurant partner in West Philly, told Fortune. “Black and Mobile has less and takes less.”

Black and Mobile charges its clients 20 percent from each order or 15 percent for partner restaurants that use its services exclusively. And Emanuel said his sales have shot up by 35 percent to 40 percent since he started working with Black and Mobile. “Once we got on their platform, people were telling us, ‘We didn’t know you were Black-owned—we didn’t even know you were opened’ … People want to support Black businesses, and with Black and Mobile, you can support two for one.”

Black and Mobile now employs 200 people, with operations in Philadelphia, Detroit and Atlanta. But opening the Atlanta operation last year did not go smoothly. A local development company botched Black and Mobile’s app for that region, missing the deadline for launch and turning in an app that didn’t work, Fortune reported. The problems cost the company around $300,000 and almost drove the Cabello brothers out of business.

this photo shows fried chicken and other soul food from D Cafe, a Black-owned restaurant benefiting from Black and Mobile's food delivery service in Atlanta

D Cafe, a Black-owned soul-food restaurant in Atlanta, is one of Black and Mobile’s partners.

But a partnership with a new program developed by Pepsi saved the day. PepsiCo Global Foodservice has pledged $400 million to fighting both the impact of COVID-19 and racial inequality. Pepsi’s Dig In program is a “purposeful rallying cry to double down our support for Black-owned businesses, with a particular focus on restaurants,” Scott Finlow, global chief marketing officer of PepsiCo Foodservice, told Fortune. “It’s a program that’s holistic, sustained—vs. transactional—and focused on ensuring owners are equipped with technology and tools to make it through the pandemic and thrive.”

With support from Dig In-affiliated partners, Black and Mobile has been working to improve its Atlanta app. “It was the support we needed to keep going,” David said. “Fixing the tech side of it is our main focus. I think that’s all we’re missing at this point.”

Related: Past Algernon Sydney Sullivan Award recipient helps prepare girls of color for careers in science

Technology is often a sticking point for Black-owned businesses, Finlow said. “There’s a capabilities gap [between white- and Black-owned businesses], which comes from access to and cost of capital. The structural disadvantage that goes back generations has led to Black restaurants being undercapitalized and not necessarily having some of the tools that let them invest in the tech that’s increasingly required to work in an off-premises world—which is make-or-break capability today.”

Even after the missteps in Atlanta, Black and Mobile still generated $500,000 in revenue in 2020, a 2,000 percent increase from the previous year, according to Fortune. “Our goal for this year: a million,” David said.

Can Virtual Reality Help Combat Negative Stereotypes?

Harvard’s president lost his job. So did a Google researcher. Mattel recalled a new version of “Barbie.” Each was a consequence of reinforcing the harmful stereotype that girls and women can’t compete with boys and men in science and mathematics.

The stereotype not only is damaging, it self-perpetuates. It contributes to the difficulty of convincing more young women to study and enter those fields—where they already are underrepresented—because they think they will do poorly, said Tabitha Peck, assistant professor of mathematics and computer science at Sullivan Foundation partner school Davidson College.

Advances in science and technology fields happen when people with a variety of perspectives examine a problem. If some groups are underrepresented, if the perspectives are limited, then so is the creativity and innovation applied to the problem.

Related: Past Sullivan Award winner helps prepare girls of color for careers in science

Peck had a question: Is it possible to use virtual reality to minimize the negative effects of stereotype threat?

Virtual reality is helping her find the answer, and the National Science Foundation is putting money behind the effort through a coveted early CAREER grant awarded this year.

Coined by Stanford psychology researchers 25 years ago, “stereotype threat” is a phenomenon in which people unwittingly fulfill negative stereotypes about their groups. Even if they don’t believe the stereotype, just knowing about the stereotype and being in a situation where the stereotype is relevant—for example, a math class—can disrupt performance.

“If they care about a test—say, the SAT,” Peck said, “and it’s challenging and they are reminded of their membership in that group (women), their performance goes down. You have a fear of conforming to the stereotype and harming your entire group.”

The same phenomenon applies to any group that is negatively stereotyped—for example, white men in sports or marginalized racial groups in academics, said Peck.

But what if they see themselves differently, in a way that the stereotype would not affect them?

Tabitha Peck

Gauging the Threat
Peck studies the psychological effects of people wearing self-avatars inside virtual environments. She and co-researcher Jessica Good, an associate professor of psychology at Davidson and expert in how social identity affects behavior, wanted to investigate using virtual reality to let people see themselves as someone else: for example, as a different age, race or gender.

“Jess and I hypothesized that, if you take women and put them in male avatars,” Peck said, “they would be buffered from the stereotype threat.”

Through 2018 and 2019, they enlisted the help of eight student researchers and recruited almost 200 participants, mostly students from Davidson College and the Davidson community. Participants donned a VR headset and were given a virtual body of either a man or woman. While sitting in what appeared to be a classroom environment, participants completed a set of complex visuo-spatial tests.

Related: Dr. Sarah Imam of The Citadel teaches students the human side of medicine

Importantly, some participants were told that men and women scored differently on these tests, while others were told there were no gender differences. Just being aware of gender differences on a visuo-spatial test is enough to cause a “threat in the air” for women, making them concerned about performing poorly.

Photo by Julia M. Cameron of Pexels

“You could see yourself in a mirror in VR. You had a computer in front of you and you were going through this quantitative test,” said Sarah Hancock, a Davidson senior who participated in an early round of the research. “It threw me off that I was male, but I was interested to see how this affects me.”

Hancock, a math and computer science major from Richmond, Virginia, participated in the study as partial fulfillment of a requirement in an introductory psychology class during her freshman year. She wasn’t told her results, but her personal experiences highlight the importance of studying women’s experiences in math and science environments.

In high school she started sitting in the front of the class so that she did not see her underrepresentation in the class; instead, she focused only on herself and the instructor. After participating in Peck’s and Good’s research, her seat choice started making more sense.

“I don’t see [that] I’m a minority in a class of males. I’m just looking at the professor and the screen,” Hancock said. “Recognizing that, I really appreciate that they’re doing work investigating stereotype threat.”

Jessica Good

Switching Identities
Social psychological researchers have long known that de-emphasizing a stereotyped identity can help protect people from stereotype threat, but what about switching identities altogether?

More than a decade ago, researchers at Stanford identified the Proteus effect, named after the Greek god who could transform into animals or even water. The research demonstrated that a virtual reality user behaves differently in that environment based on their avatar.

The user knows that other people in the virtual environment ascribe certain characteristics to the user’s avatar, and the user’s behavior is affected by those perceptions, or stereotypes.

Peck’s and Good’s results were published in 2018 in a special edition of IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, with follow-on work published in 2020 in the proceedings of the ACM Computer-Human Interactions Conference. They first affirmed that the harmful effect of stereotype threat could be found in a virtual environment.

They showed that women’s performance on a visuospatial test suffered when they were placed in a female avatar and told that men and women score differently on the test, compared to when women in female avatars were told there were no gender differences in test scores.

Related: Sullivan Award winner overcomes racism, poverty to earn graduate fellowship from National Science Foundation

However, when the women were placed in a male avatar and reminded of a gender difference, their performance did not suffer.

It wasn’t just women participants who were affected, Good said. “Everybody who was in a female avatar under stereotype threat had lower math confidence than if they were not under threat.”

Photo by Sound On from Pexels

That means that men who were put in female avatars showed poorer performance on the visuospatial test when they were told there were gender differences on the test. In other words, just like the Proteus effect, when men were put in female avatars, they took on behaviors consistent with stereotypes of women.

Ultimately, the gendered avatar switch worked. It was capable of buffering against stereotypes, but people can’t walk around in VR headsets all the time.

Peck and Good argue that their work has promising and realistic future implications. For example, they are interested in understanding whether VR technology can be utilized in real classroom settings (both in person and remote classrooms) to address real experiences of stereotype threat.

The pandemic has expanded the use of virtual tools, including virtual environments and virtual identities. We have all played around with changing our virtual background in Zoom, and lots of virtual educational institutions use avatars as stand-ins for live teachers. Our familiarity with virtual tools, developed out of a tragic global necessity, has paved the way for use of the kinds of technology that Peck and Good are researching.

This article has been edited slightly from the original version appearing on the Davidson College website.

Furman University Student Helps Her Home Town Acknowledge Its Painful History

By Kelley Bruss

Emma Jones of Sullivan Foundation partner school Furman University knew she came from a place steeped in history. But she didn’t know pieces of that history had been left out.

“There’s a lot of memorials there,” Jones said of Walker County, Georgia, “just not for the man that we lynched.”

It’s been more than two years since Jones first heard the story of 24-year-old Henry White, a Black man who was hung by a white mob in 1916. For two years, she initiated and helped lead an effort to install a memorial to White in the county where he was killed. The memorial was dedicated in September.

Related: As white churches confront racial injustice, Davidson College researchers seek to create model for change

Jones grew up in Raleigh, North Carolina, but moved to rural northwest Georgia in high school. She came to Furman to study psychology. She wanted an education that would feed her passion for justice, especially within prison populations.

In summer 2018, Jones took a research internship at Sullivan Foundation partner school Auburn University in eastern Alabama. She worked for the school’s Juvenile Delinquency Laboratory, splitting her time between the lab and a local prison.

During that time, she visited The National Memorial for Peace and Justice and The Legacy Museum, both projects of the Equal Justice Initiative (EJI). The memorial commemorates documented lynchings throughout the United States. That’s when she was surprised to find her own county represented in the display.

EJI works with community groups to create local memorials to lynching victims and to foster conversations about race and justice. Jones decided she’d help to examine Walker County.

Her initial efforts with local officials didn’t generate results, but her luck changed when she reached out to the Walker County Historical Society. Its president, David Boyle, connected Jones with Beverly Foster, president of the Walker County African American Historical and Alumni Association.

Foster was busy compiling a family history, but Jones was persistent.

“Finally, I said, ‘Let me see what this little girl wants—she’s about to wear me to death,’” Foster said, laughing.

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Foster sent Jones on a mission to find any existing records of White’s story. Jones used old newspapers, county archives and death records to piece together what happened to White in 1916. The research showed he was found by a mob on the same day that reports had surfaced of an assault on a white woman. Later information suggested White and the woman were in a consensual relationship. Records state that White begged for a proper trial. Instead, he was hung from a tree with a log chain.

Jones represented the Walker County Remembrance Coalition when she signed a contract with EJI, which sponsored the memorial as well as several $1,000 scholarships. The scholarships will be available next year through an essay contest at the county’s two public high schools.

Foster helped recruit eight other people to join her, Doyle and Jones on the coalition, including three other college students. She viewed the older members of the group, including herself, as mentors to the younger ones.

this is a photo of two women unveiling the Henry White Memorial marker in Lafayette, Georgia

The Henry White Memorial Marker was unveiled in Lafayette, Georgia, on September 19. (Photo by Equal Justice Initiative)

“In 20 years or so, we’re going to retire, and these young people have got to take over for us,” she said.

The coalition focused on education and community awareness. Jones spent a lot time on foot, spreading the word in the community. The work required patience.

“Delicate things like this you have to approach in a delicate way,” Foster said. “We approached it from the standpoint of bringing the community together in a loving situation.”

But it wasn’t enough for Jones to have the county’s Black community behind the project.

“I really need the white people here to know this happened,” she said. “If they’re [members of the Black community] the only people at our ceremony, then we’ve done something wrong.”

She learned that a slower pace is worth it when it allows enough time to engage and involve a broader group. “I probably learned more from working with Beverly than I did from the actual technical work,” Jones said.

The memorial to White, and to the broader story of racial terror, was installed in LaFayette, Georgia, on Sept. 19. Jones is working now in Washington, D.C., for the Capital Fellows program and was unable to travel for the ceremony due to COVID-19 restrictions.

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Foster hated that Jones had to miss it. “She got us moving, she got our attention,” Foster said.

Jones’s father delivered her speech on her behalf.

“How was I familiar with the origins of this land, the battles that occurred here, the Civil War officers esteemed and commemorated throughout this town, and yet I did not know about the man who had been lynched here without any acknowledgment of his fundamental American rights to due process?” the speech read, in part.

On the day of the dedication, leaders from all walks of life came to remember White together.

“It is really important to see things and feel passionately about them—and not let it end there,” Jones said. “Acknowledging our history is a really big part of that, but that won’t be the end—that won’t be the fix for us.”

This story has been edited slightly from the original version appearing on the Furman University website.

Mercer University Joins Consortium Examining History of Slavery at American Colleges and Universities

Sullivan Foundation partner school Mercer University has joined Universities Studying Slavery (USS), a consortium of more than 70 institutions created and led by the University of Virginia, also a Sullivan partner school, to collaborate in sharing best practices and guiding principles about truth-telling projects addressing human bondage and racism in institutional histories.

Mercer will be joining more than a dozen Sullivan partner schools that are already USS members. These include Clemson University, The Citadel, the College of William and Mary, Elon University, Furman University, George Mason University, Guilford College, Hampden-Sydney College, the University of Mississippi, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the University of South Carolina, Washington and Lee University and Wesleyan College.

Related: Mercer University team creates 3D yearbooks for visually impaired high schoolers

All USS member schools have committed to research, acknowledgment and atonement regarding institutional ties to the slave trade, to enslavement on campus or abroad, and to enduring racism in school history and practice.

USS hosts semi-annual meetings to allow member institutions to work together to address both historical and contemporary issues dealing with race and inequality in higher education and in university communities. Members seek to address the complicated legacies of slavery in the modern world and develop ways for institutions to address equity in the 21st century.

“With 28% of the current student body identifying as African-Americans, Mercer has done a remarkable job at recruiting and retaining students whose experience varies greatly from Mercer students of an earlier era,” said Dr. Douglas E. Thompson, professor of history and Southern studies and director of Mercer’s Spencer B. King Jr. Center for Southern Studies. “We recognize that a fuller accounting of the university’s history will affirm for those students the university’s commitment to a better understanding of its past.”

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The Spencer B. King Jr. Center for Southern Studies will lead the work of examining the historical record to narrate with greater clarity Mercer University’s engagement with slavery. It will also draw upon models established by student research projects in Mercer’s College of Liberal Arts and Sciences’ Africana Studies and History departments.

The Spencer B. King Jr. Center for Southern Studies fosters critical discussions about the many meanings of the South. As the only center for southern studies in the United States dedicated to the education and enrichment of undergraduate students, the Center’s primary purpose is to examine the region’s complex history and culture through courses, conversations and events that are open, honest and accessible.

This article has been edited from the original version appearing on the Mercer University website.

George Mason University Alumnus Recognized as Racial Justice Leader

For Nicole Lynn Lewis, a 2006 graduate of Sullivan Foundation partner school George Mason University, completing her undergraduate degree as a single mom not only opened doors of opportunity, but symbolized how far she had come despite the challenges involved.

After graduating, Lewis had an overwhelming desire to help other young parents earn their degrees but couldn’t find any organizations in the Washington, D.C. area with such a mission. So she founded Generation Hope in 2010.

Related: Stunning works of racial justice art submitted for Duke University contest

Since then, the organization has reported helping more than 200 teen parents in college and their children with mentoring, emotional support and financial resources. Generation Hope has provided more than $800,000 in tuition assistance and celebrated 93 college degrees.

For her impact, Lewis was recently named one of 31 inaugural awardees of the Black Voices for Black Justice Fund, an initiative championed by actress Kerry Washington and philanthropic leader Wes Moore, among others, that draws on $10 million to invest in Black leaders across the U.S. working on issues of racial justice.

Nicole Lewis, founder of Generation Hope

“It means everything to have someone say, ‘We see you, and we honor the work that you’re doing and what your vision is for the world,’” Lewis said. “It’s a validation of [teen parents’] experiences and how important it is that we support their dreams for their futures, because that is so connected to the journey that we’re on as a country for racial equity and justice.”

About 90% of the students Generation Hope works with are students of color, said Lewis, who has also been named a CNN Hero, a Minority Business Leader by Washington Business Journal and a member of Washingtonian’s “Top 40 Under 40” in 2017. Funds from the Black Voices for Black Justice award will be used to support Generation Hope’s mission and continue to tell the story of why teen parents’ success matters.

“[Teen parents] have so much to offer their communities, [and they] tend to have higher GPAs than their peers, but there are so many systemic barriers and hurdles to their success,” Lewis said. “As we talk about higher ed, as we talk about solutions to poverty, and as we talk about racial equity and justice, we have to be talking about helping this population thrive.”

Lewis is no stranger to those barriers. Although she was raised by college-educated parents and was an honors student and president of several clubs in high school, she grew up in a turbulent home environment that made her feel “really uneasy and insecure” in her life. And when she became pregnant with her daughter at 18, she suddenly became a social outcast. “People stopped talking to me,” she told CNN. “I lost all of my friends. It didn’t matter that I was an honor roll student. People pretty much wrote me off.”

Related: This George Mason University alumnus has dedicated her life to bringing peace to the Middle East

But Lewis was determined to go to college, and she did exactly that, graduating with honors and going on to earn her master’s degree, all while raising her little girl.

According to Lewis’ listing on the Black Voices for Black Justice Fund website, she has authored a book about her life called “Pregnant Girl,” which is scheduled to be released by Beacon Press in the spring of 2021.

In her professional career, Lewis said she still draws on the skills she learned at Mason. “A big takeaway for me was understanding the unintended consequences of legislation,” Lewis said. “As students, we were encouraged to uncover and ask the right questions, and that’s been really helpful in the work that I do now when we’re thinking about free college efforts, financial aid reform, or how do we increase SNAP benefits to cover college students and be more accessible to college students.”

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“Nicole is changing lives for the better every day,” said Schar School Dean Mark J. Rozell. “With her ability she could have chosen any other path professionally and made a lot of money, but instead she followed her passion to help people.”

“It’s gratifying to see people who never sought personal reward be recognized for doing good,” Rozell said. “I’m very proud of her. She represents the best of Mason.”

This article has been adapted from the original version appearing on the George Mason University website and from an article on

Stunning Works of Racial Justice Art Submitted for Duke University Contest

From the anger and grief following the killings of several unarmed Black citizens to difficult conversations with younger family members about how the world will see them when they grow up, Zaire McPhearson had many moments this year when she saw in stark terms how far society has left to go before it truly confronts its racism.

“The last couple of months have been extremely difficult, especially being a Black woman living in the American climate that we’re in,” said McPhearson, who graduated from the Master of Fine Arts program at Sullivan Foundation partner school Duke University in May.

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Those emotions motivated McPhearson, now an an instructor in the Department of Art, Art History and Visual Studies, as she designed the stunning digital art piece that was selected by judges to accompany the new “Working Toward Racial Justice” recurring story series, which launches in the Working@Duke magazine in February.

McPhearson’s art was one of 12 submissions from Duke staff and faculty members that were voted on by nearly 1,000 Duke community members. Five submissions that received the most votes were reviewed without any identifying information by Director for Continuing Education at the Center for Documentary Studies Michael Betts II; Mary Lou Williams Center for Black Culture Director Chandra Guinn; and Visual Arts Program Coordinator for Arts & Health at Duke Bill Gregory.

“Art, in whatever form, can really inspire and provoke change,” Guinn said. “It can change minds and provide alternative perspectives, which can be a powerful tool when relating to racial justice.”

Zaire McPhearson’s piece won the judges’ award in an art contest focused on racial justice.

The judges chose McPhearson’s haunting image of three figures in front of a field of blue shapes because it reveals several deeper layers the more you look.

The background features the colors of Duke, interlocking shapes that evoke the stonework on campus, and fragmented depictions of Duke University Chapel. All of it is covered in a rough texture that suggests scars of the past.

“Duke wants to be a safe space for students, and I think, in order to be a safe space, you have to address what’s happening recently but also what’s happened in the past,” McPhearson said.

Related: Guilford College art professor’s paintings capture plight of systemic racism

The three figures in the foreground wear shirts in the colors of the Durham flag and masks that cover half of their featureless faces, representing both the coronavirus, which has disproportionately affected Black Americans, and the feeling of voicelessness.

“There are all these different elements at play in a very quick and easy, accessible way,” Betts said. “As we looked at this piece, things started to unfold and avail themselves to our understanding. We loved the simplicity and complexity of it. That’s the beauty of thoughtful work. That’s the beauty of art.”

Sydney Mitchell’s contest submission won the most votes from Duke community members.

Sydney Mitchell was still figuring out how to process the racial justice movement when she saw Working@Duke’s call for original artwork to accompany the series. She decided to channel her emotions into a design, creating a digital mosaic of 750 headshots of Duke employees forming a black hand and white hand clasping together. Mitchell’s piece received the most community votes among the entries.

“I read the description for the contest and how it focused on inclusion, community and us supporting each other and our colleagues who are people of color,” said Mitchell, an occupational therapist for Duke University Hospital. “It came to me that Duke is such a diverse place where people of all backgrounds come together. I wanted to show that with this piece.”

Mitchell created the design by asking colleagues from various departments and units in Duke University Hospital to share photos of themselves to include in the mosaic. She received about 250 photos, many of which were used multiple times in the mosaic.

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Mitchell worked on editing the photos so everyone’s head was in the center of the shot. She purchased the image of the hands clasping together from the stock photography provider Shutterstock and used Mosaically, a free website, to create mosaics and to put the final piece together.

The photo now hangs in the Duke Physical and Occupational Therapy Clinic gym, where Mitchell and other occupational therapists work with patients.

“Art is a springboard for conversations,” said contest judge Gregory. “It’s not about telling someone exactly how you should think. It’s about inspiring us to have open-ended conversations, to stand and reflect on moments in our lives like this pursuit of racial justice.”

This article has been edited from the original version appearing on the Duke University website. Click here to view all of the art contest submissions.