These tuition-free colleges, both located in Kentucky, were featured in a recent article on NPR.com. The article explains how their tuition-free work-college models came into existence and how they’ve managed to thrive even as other higher-education institutions have struggled to keep tuition costs under control.
Berea College was founded by a Presbyterian minister/abolitionist in 1855 as the first racially integrated and coeducational college in the American South. Berea went tuition-free in 1892 because so many students couldn’t afford to pay. In 1920, as NPR reports, its board of trustees created an endowment that has since ballooned to $1.2 billion. The profits from its investments help to educate low-income students, mostly from Appalachia, for free. That means students can graduate with little or no debt while getting a high-quality college education.
NPR notes that it can take decades, even up to 75 years, for an endowment like Berea’s to be able to fully fund a tuition-free college education. When Alice Lloyd founded the institution that bears her name in the early 1900s, she took a different route. For her students, free college actually meant hard work from the start, as they and their families provided the labor to build and staff the campus. Today, Alice Lloyd College boasts about 600 students, mostly from low-income Appalachian families, and 85 percent of the alumni return to live and work in Appalachia.
TaLaura Mathis, who is working on her degree in biology at ALC and then plans to study dentistry, wants to do exactly that. “Where I come from, it’s very poverty-stricken,” Mathis told NPR. “I really want to help blue-collar, hard-working people that just can’t afford dentistry.”
To keep tuition free for students from Alice Lloyd College’s 108-county service area, ALC has “a decent endowment” of around $44 million, NPR reports. ALC also does a lot of fundraising to make sure new buildings are fully funded before construction even begins. Meanwhile, professors teach heavier class loads than they would at other schools and don’t receive tenure.
As work colleges, Berea and ALC both require students to work at least 10 hours a week. The Atlantic has described Berea’s labor requirements as “work-study on steroids,” with students handling everything from janitorial services to website production and managing volunteer programs. As of the Atlantic’s October 2018 article, 45% of Berea graduates had no debt, while others had an average of less than $7,000 in debt.
ALC’s website states that “no student has ever been turned away from Alice Lloyd College due to an inability to pay.” It adds that ALC “is consistently listed among the nation’s leaders in graduating students with the least amount of average debt.”
Can other schools learn from Berea College and Alice Lloyd College? It depends. NPR suggests the work college model is “best suited for smaller institutions” since it’s not always feasible to create mandatory jobs for students at schools with relatively high enrollments. However, larger schools that want to lower tuition or offer a tuition-free or reduced-tuition education “could try a hybrid of the work-college model,” with smaller working programs offered along with other forms of financial aid.